It brings shivers to hear about the Naxalites. According to popular belief, Naxalite is cruel and inhuman as if incarnation of Satan or Yama of Puranas. But nobody is born as a Naxalite. Then when these children enter their teens why do they yield the weapons and guns and take to the street. This is moot point. The element which is most neglected in the Indian democracy is a Adivasi. Such neglected global ignorant leaving the life of penury. The Naxalite movement is thrust upon them, taking advantage of their weakness. As a matter of fact, an Adivasi has no desire to become a Naxalite. Through his ancient republican traditions an Adivasi has been the protector of democratic values. Such a democratic person is burdened and his human instinct denied and is promoted to kill his own kith and kin. This is the picture seen through the Naxalite movement.
What is the Naxalites movement?
Karl Marx is supposed to be the original promoter of revolution within the leftist ideals of Hegel. Lenin was the one who brought the theories of Karl Marx into the effect and he wanted the revolution of really depressed. The main principle of revolution by Lenin was that the society will not develop unless the power is snatched away by force from the established rich.
When the way of communism came from Russia to China it attained slightly different form. Accepting Marxist Philosophy, Mao brought forward the communism which is suitable by Chinese conditions. Chinese are very proud of their long standing and ancient culture. Therefore, they wish to form the new society based on ancient Chinese culture. They do not like to go much away from old values and traditions. China was mainly an agricultural country and the majority of the farmers were landless labourers. There was exploitation and very large scale of poverty was running supreme. Mao wanted to liberate poor landless labourers from the land lords in this agricultural country.
Highly influenced by the thoughts of Marx, Lenin and Mao, based on social structures devoid of exploitation, the hard liner Communist thinkers from West Bengal Mr. Charu Mujumdar and Kanu Sanayal implemented their thoughts through the armed struggle. The struggle of revolution being motivated by Mao, its notice was taken by China, being the first example of revolution since Indian Independence. The land reforms and developments based on the revolutionary philosophy of Mao came forward and came to be known as Naxalite movement.
In a place called Nakshalvadi in West Bengal an Adivasi youth named Wimal Kesan, having obtained a judicial order, went to plough his land on 2 March 1967. The local land lords attacked him through their goons. Through this erupted a struggle of "Nakshalvadi" and Adivasis started capturing back their lands. A Police Sub-inspector was killed by an Adivasi after two months in a riot, that started. Riot become stronger and 9 Adivasis were killed. Echo of this incident spread throughout the country and the end of this riot came forward as revolution "Nakshalvadi movement". The guns of Nakshalvadi directed against exploitation and in the name of social development pointed towards the landlords now changed and directed towards bureaucrats and thus spread of Naxalite movement has taken place within Adivasi areas of Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh and districts of Bhandara, Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Nanded and Thane of Maharashtra.
The movement thrust upon the Adivasi
At the basis of Naxalite movement there is a violence and an unconstitutional movement which denies democracy. The illiterate Adivasi who is cursed by the established system of exploitation now wishes liberation. He wants rights of self determination, self Government, self autonomy. He is ready to struggle for that and is getting prepared to throw away the burden of slavery imposed on him. The established higher caste intellectual Charu Mujumdar got the idea that Adivasi struggle is going to start against their system. Therefore, Naxalite movement originated from the clever brain of higher caste people like Charu Mujumdar. But on the contrary this movement has been used as a weapon against the Adivasi. As a result, Adivasi struggle is being termed as Naxalite and this horrible objective leads to blunt to sharpness of their movement against the system. It is necessary that Adivasi should understand these tactics.
We are today celebrating golden jubilee of our independence but Adivasi has no realization of that Independence. He can not see anything beyond the two pieces of bread twice a day, food, clothing and shelter, the prime needs of life. These problems are still unsolved for them. During the happy celebrations of independence, the heart of Adivasi is filled with waves of sorrow and suffering. Adivasi who suffered by getting killed by bullets during the freedom struggle of this country, thousands of their children are dieing of malnutrition. His misery is not taken in cognizance of by anybody. In the name of development Government has spent up to 1993-94, a sum of 89 crores, 41.15 lakhs over an Adivasi population of 6 crores, 19.59 lakhs, as per 1991 census. This comes to average of 14.43 paise, per head. 90.89 percent Adivasi are leading their lives below poverty line, education is negligible. Thus in this country an Adivasi is deprived of development purposefully. Undeveloped means an animal.
This undeveloped Adivasi has never read Marx, Lenin, or Mao, he does not know the fundamental values taught by them. He does not know who were Marx, Lenin, he has never seen a gun how it looks like. How such an Adivasi youth becomes a Naxalite is a question which is puzzling everybody.
Suffering extreme degree of poverty, he is tolerating misery without complaining. When this misery becomes intolerable and when he was ready to snatch away his rights, he looks helplessly having no means of restricting the modesty of his sisters and mothers being violated in his presence. And so he adopts violent means as a reaction. This becomes a crime and he is declared as a Naxalite. In this country the criminals are getting their breads at least twice for example those in the jails are fed twice a day but in this independent country of our own an Adivasi does not. What a misery! I am a human being and got a right to live my life my own way, this is my just demand, says an Adivasi. Naxalites have taken full advantage of this condition. This delicate situation has been exploited by Naxalites to their advantage, and struggle against land lords and contractors has been turned away from them and directed against the innocent Adivasis. No Adivasi wants an violence, contrarily Naxalites want bloody revolution and they have selected Adivasi regions to try this out. Social exploitation is important for creating the backgrounds of revolution. Society which is exploited most gets ready for social revolution more easily. This is the basic thought of Naxalites and so they have made the Adivasi their weapon for revolution. As majority of the revolutions come out through violence, and almost all revolutions are in the forms of killing human being, Naxalites have thrust a gun in the hands of an Adivasi, who now is thought of as a killer.
Is struggle against system implied in Naxalite movement?
Adivasis are denied their indigenous existence, they are denied their rights of civilization obtained from the nature. This is the question of their existence and self respect, for which it is necessary to start the struggle. A landlord and contractor is the exploiter, this is the true, but main enemy of Adivasi is the established system which denied them identity. The main aim of Adivasi movement is to start a struggle against the established Manuvadi system, to build their camps against it, to destroy violence of Hindutvavadis and replace it with the new revolution of the Indigenous people in its place.
The Naxalite movement is not a movement of Adivasi at all. It is thrust on them. Adivasi person is leading a life based on his ancient culture. Through this thrust movement he will destroy his own culture. What is the new culture he is going to achieve on the basis of gun thrust on him by the Naxalites? This is the question which is every Adivasi must understand. The basis of Naxalite movement is human killings. But in the hunter's life of Adivasi there is no place for human killing. On the contrary, when an Adivasi hunts animals as a means of livelihood he distributes equal share to all of his members of his community. Thus he has got a sense of equality.
Thousands of Adivasis and police are being killed in the name of Naxalites and while this is going on nobody in the established order feels sorry about it. Because it is not affecting them at all. The struggle of Naxalites has not been projected as a struggle against established classes. They have come against land lords and bureaucracy on the point of gun and are struggling for liberty and establishment and social order, but it is not a struggle which will completely deny the established order. If the Naxalite want to bring transformation in the Adivasi society it is only expected of them that they declare, "If the Adivasi is not getting his rights the Adivasi will completely deny the Hindu religion as a human being and adopt instead any other religion, either willingly or on point of gun". This simple statement has not come forward up till now from any special group of Naxalites. If this simple statement had been made then those in power would have found their chairs shaken, but this is not happening. Naxalites have no programme to arise the self respect among Adivasis. Naxalite movement does not belongs to Adivasi at all. It is thrust by aliens on them. Adivasi uptill now obeyed orders of the system now he is obeying orders of Naxalites on the point of gun. Adivasi is in struggling against "Vanavasi" term imposed on him he also in struggle for obtaining to definition as Indigenous people in the Constitution of India. It is necessary that the struggle be raised on the basis of their self governance self determination to give him identity of Indigenous people awarding him just rights on the constitutional basis. But it does not seem likely that the Naxalites start struggle based on identification of Adivasi as Indigenous people.
When one bears the torch of revolution one must be sure about identification of ones enemy and otherwise one may kill ones own kith and kin. As a matter of fact, when an Adivasi will revolt against the established system, whole of the system will be found posed against Adivasi society. That will definitely be the revolution of an Adivasi. This principle is not the basis of Naxalite movement.
Why is Adivasi attracted towards Naxalites?
is very natural for an Adivasi to feel that there is none to protect him from malnutrition, inhuman torture, rising unemployment, inordinate delay in disposal of land cases, unwillingness to implement the land review commission's recommendations being pending for years together, the people being put behind bars without any crime, and torture by police without any reasons, under such circumstances the Naxalites got sympathy from the Adivasis of Gadchiroli, Chandrapur and Bhandara district when they fight for the remuneration of the Adivasi labourers. An impression has been created that ANNA can obtain an announced rate of remuneration for collection of Tendu leaves from the contractors. Lately, Naxalites have boycotted vote in elections. Their slogan was "No revolution through ballot, no liberation without revolution". The reason of this boycott was the great impression on the mass of Adivasis, of the unemployment and injustice making them to think whether they are citizens of this country or not. Another reason of this boycott was also said to be that "They are creating a Special Pressure Group of Adivasis who are the people thrown out from the stream of national development". This is one reason that Adivasis are attracted towards Naxalites, because they feel some change might take place through such pressure group.
Government have brought plans and sub plans in the name of Adivasi. By these plans of development, Adivasis are made model of development and Hindutva is imposed on them instead of development and their progress. There are no industries in Adivasi areas. There is some land with the Adivasi but no irrigation. Unemployment, malnutrition has posed a great problem to their security for which there is no protection from police. Labourers' Morcha for demands of bread in Chhatisgad had to face fire and several Adivasi labourers have been killed but nobody bothers about them. Government have no plans for the basic transformation of Adivasis. As alternative, Adivasis are turning towards Naxalite movement. It will not be wrong to say that it is the Government who are responsible for this.
Murders of Adivasis in the name of Naxalites
Human being needs happiness, when he is in misery he needs moral support. Therefore, the troubled Adivasi felt Naxalite movement as their movement. Sometimes a Naxalite may be going to the Adivasi hamlet and gets his meals by paying him but in the eyes of police he become an accomplice of the Naxalite. Police is the enemy of the Naxalites and the Naxalites are the enemy of the police and their "informers". A triangle that is created and an Adivasi is suffering because of this. Naxalites enter the house of Adivasi without any warning, they get the food. Adivasi always speaks truth. When questioned by police he tells the truth. As a result, in the eyes of the Naxalites he becomes an informer and in the eyes of police he becomes a criminal as an accomplice of Naxalite. Thus Adivasi becomes target of the Naxalites well as police and his punishment is bullet in a head either from police or from Naxalite. This is the crux of the matter which is not understood properly even today by Adivasis.
Today the pressure group of Naxalites has become so strong that the Government have charted out the "Naxalite action plan" to finish the Naxalite movement once for all. There should be no two opinions that Naxalite movement must end. At least the Adivasi is always in favour of ending it. In the name of Naxalites a fierce atmosphere of tension has been created. Government have not made any arrangement for preventing Naxalites entering the house of Adivasi. On the contrary, in the name of enquiry for preventing the Naxalite movement many innocent Adivasis are taken into custody by the police. When an Adivasi, to meet his both the ends meet, wanders in the forest and collects the gums, fruits, the roots and the fire wood, he is being tortured as a criminal, some times by the foresters sometimes by the police.
Many Adivasis are booked under the TADA in the name of Naxalites. From Salekasa on 5th Feb.1993, they took forcefully to the police station four girls for enquiry in connection with Naxalite movement and booked under TADA. Four girls between ages of 15 to 16, all unmarried, were from Bewar tola, (Toya Gondi) Kumari Tara Kunjam, Ku. Sukhawati Uke, Ku. Premila Kumare, Ku. Jayawant Kusrag. The news items appears in the news papers that they were raped and killed in the police custody. The matter was taken up by the social organization of Nagpur in the high court.
Recently TADA protection committee declared in their Report about malnutrition of the people imprisoned under TADA, that Renu Ukey resident of Sawaraon in Gadchiroli District, died on 1.4.94 in the Medical college Nagpur because of Malnutrition. Whereas one Raytu Mitlami of Beba Palli village from Chamorshi died in Nagpur Central Jail on 21st August 1995. Thus the Adivasis are being killed in the name of Naxalites.
Non-Adivasi gets a reward for killing Adivasi
In an encounter between the Naxalites and police, in the Rupsar police station in Balaghat Taluka, Suwarna Madawi, Azad Uke, Dr. Binay and Motilal Durwe, all these Adivasis were shot dead in the name of Naxalites. The police officer by name Banjari who killed these Adivasis was rewarded by medal and promoted by the Madhya Pradesh Additional Director General of Police, by going to the site of the incident. Not only of this, but his name is recommended for a National Medal of Bravery. [Loksatta, 2.6.94]
On 19th May 1992, Inspector Chawan was awarded a prize of one Rs. Lakh by Govt. of Maharashtra, for killing an Adivasi Shamrao Kinake alias Vijay Kumar by declaring him as a Naxalite and killing him in the "Vijay Kumar operation" at Junawadi (Nanded). Thus if a non-Adivasi Police Officer kills an Adivasi Naxalite he is awarded, thus encouraging him to kill Adivasis.
"Police verses Naxalites, Adivasi kills another Adivasi"
Since 1989, four hundred Adivasis are recruited in police services to stop the spread of Naxalite movement. [Statement of I.G.Police Shri T.K.Chaudhari in Lokmat, 6/1/1990]. The Adivasi Policemen were giving special training and sent in the Naxalite areas under the name of Naxalite Action Plan. When an Adivasi comes forward with a gun in his hands in the name of establishing of liberty and social justice, a struggle takes place between the Adivasi police and Adivasi Naxalite. As a result of such struggle, an Adivasi is killed by an Adivasi, and it is termed "Naxalite"
Adivasis Killed in Police Encounters
Gadchiroli- 52 - 20- 6 - 40
Bhandara - 12 - 7 - 3 - 7
Chandrapur- N- N - 1 - N
Total - 74 - 27 - 10 - 47
Civilian Adivasi-Naxalite Adivasi -Police Adivasi-Surrendered Naxalite Adivasi
[Compiled from various News papers]
Adivasis need a "Alar Kalam"
In July 1996, in the police custody in Bhamragad, an Adivasi named Edaka Atram was killed for having relationship with Naxalites. The whole matter is shocking for the Adivasi society. But the emotionless Adivasi society did not even registered its protest or demonstration in this matter and nobody has taken any action against the Government on any level in this matter. Four Adivasi girls from Bepartoli are raped and killed. And all this crime is taking place in the police station. Government are rewarding and promoting the killing of Adivasi when a Adivasi was killed by non-Adivasi policeman. Revolutionary poet and singer, Gaddar is prohibited from singing and educating the Adivasi society. To commit inhuman torture, to bring starvation, and not providing enough protection when there is danger to life, all of these instances are the matters of violation of Human Rights of Adivasis but these matters are not taken cognizance of on International level.
The cruel murder of Edaka Atram in police custody, though this incident is a violation of human rights, this was not taken note of in this country. Reason of this being that the Indian Adivasi is not included in the definition of violation of human rights of the United Nations Organization. But the Indian Government are opposed to include Adivasis in the definition or violation of human rights on the International levels.
In the first war of Independence many Adivasi Heroes have scarifies their lives to free India from the slavery of the English. Adivasi leaders Shankar Shaha and Raghunath Shaha, both these father and son sacrificed their lives. This is true fight against English Birsa Munda sacrificed himself to liberate the whole Indian society from the crunch of the British. In the freedom struggle of 1857 great Martyr Bapurao Shedmake who fought against mighty British Army to free the mother India from the slavery of English was hanged in the Chandrapur prison on a Pipal tree. That tree is even today saluting the Adivasi martyrs. In this country, where Adivasis are such martyrs, the same Adivasis are now being labeled Naxalites. Is it not a great tragedy?
The word Naxalite is of criminal type. This word has got technic of labeling of Adivasi as a criminal tribes and drives him out of national development and put him under the world of crime. In every world and every action there might be a crime but there is promise of some values. It is necessary that these values be searched and brought into the light. The values being created among the Adivasis in the name of Naxalites, destroy the original culture of Adivasis. As a matter of fact, it is necessary to bring forward the stream of that culture of justice equality and fraternity which is well established among the Adivasi society.
It is necessary that the great Mahatma be arisen in the Adivasi society like Alar Kalam who was the teacher of Sidhartha Gautam and to whom Mahatma Buddha had an intention of giving diksha after obtaining Budhahood. Without this, the cunning policy of killing the Adivasi will not end and neither will end the Naxalites in this country.